Study Material For RRB Exam: General Knowledge (G.K.) - Geography


Study Material For RRB Exam - General Knowledge

Section : Geography

Solar System

Important Facts

Biggest planet 			: Jupiter
Smallest plant 			: Mercury
Satellite of Earth 		: Moon 
Nearest planet from Sun 	: Mercury 
Farthest planet from Sun 	: Neptune 
Nearest planet to Earth 	: Venus
Brightest planet 		: Venus
Brightest star 			: Dog Star 
Planet having maximum 
number of satellite 		: Jupiter (63)
Coldest planet 			: Neptune 
Red planet (seen at night) 	: Mars
Heaviest planet 		: Jupiter 
Biggest satellite of solar 	: Ganymede system
Smallest satellite of solar 	: Demos
system 
Blue planet 			: Earth
Red planet 			: Mars
Morning star 			: Venus
Evening star 			: Venus
Sister of Earth 		: Venus
9th planet 			: Karla

Galaxies

Galaxy Name                          Magnitude Visual

Milky way 			 —
Large Magellanic Cloud  	0.9
Small Magellanic Cloud 		2.5
Ursa Minor Dwarf 		11.9
Sculptor Dwarf 			80
Draco Dwarf 			10.9
Formax Sysyem 			8.3
Leo -II System 			12.04 
Leo -I System 			12.0
N. G.C 6822 			8.9
N.G.C. 147 			9.73
N.G.C. 185 			10.1
N .G.C. 205 			8.17
N.G.C. 2 21 (M 32) 		8.16
IC 1613 			9.61
Andromeda Galaxy 		3.47
N.G.C. 598 (M 33) 		5.79
Maffel I 			11.0

Important Lines and Boundaries

  • Durand Line: It is the line demarcating the boundaries of India and Afghanistan. It was drawn up in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand. India recognizes the Durand Line but Afghanistan does not.
  • Hindenburg Line: It is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. The Germans marched to this line in 1917 during World War I.
  • Maginot Line: A 320 Km line of fortification built by France along its border with Germany before World War II, to protect against German attack.
  • Mannerheim Line: It is the line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. Drawn up by General Mannerheim.
  • McMahon Line: Drawn up by Sir Henry McMahon. It demarcates the frontier of India and China. China did not recognize this line and violated it in 1962.
  • Oder-Neisse Line: It is the border between Poland and Germany running along the Oder and Neisse rivers; adopted at the Poland Conference (August 1945) after the World War II.
  • Radcliffe Line: Drawn up by Sir Cyril Radcliffe, this line demarcates the boundary between India and Pakistan.
  • Siegfried Line: Is the line of fortification drawn up by Germany on its border with France.
  • 17th Parallel: The 17th Parallel defined the boundary between North and South Vietnam before the two were united.
  • 24th Parallel: Is the line which Pakistan claims for demarcation between India and Pakistan. This, however, is not recognized by India.
  • 38th Parallel: Is the parallel of latitude which separates North and South Korea.
  • 49th Parallel: The boundary between US and Canada.

Some Important Facts

  • The total surface area of the earth 510,067,2000 sq. km.
  • Total area covered by water or sea 70.92%
  • The land area 29.08%
  • The equatorial circumference of the earth 40,075,03 km.
  • The meridional circumference 40,007,89 km.
  • The total world’s population 6.25 billion (Approximately)
  • The average daily increase in the world’s population 263,000 (182 per minute)
  • The crude birth rate 27.1 per 1000
  • The crude death rate 9.8 per 1000
  • The most populous country China
  • The least populous country Vatican city
  • Most densely populated country The Portuguese province of Macau
  • Total number of countries 253
  • The largest country in area Russia
  • The smallest country in area Vatican city
  • The most populous city Mexican city
  • The largest City Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia

Different Minerals and their Primary Producers

Minerals                  First Producer                   Second Producer

Aluminium 		USA   			CIS
Asbestos 		Canada 			Rhodesia
Bauxite 		Australia 		Jamaica
Chromium 		Rhodesia 		India
Coal 			USA 			Russia
Coal 			USA 			Russia
Crude Oil 		Russia 			Saudi Arabia
Diamonds 		Zaire 			Russia
Gold 			South Africa 		Canada
Graphite 		Sri Lanka 		—
Iron Ore 		Russia 			Brazil
Lead Ore 		USA 			Russia
Manganese Ore 		USA 			South Africa
Mercury 		Italy 			Spain
Natural Gas 		USA 			Russia
Nickel ore 		Canada 			Russia
Platinum 		USA 			Kuwait
Petroleum products 	China 			Japan
Phosphate 		USA 			Russia
Silver 			Canada 			Russia
Tin 			Malaysia 		Bolvia
Tungsten 		China 			Russia
Uranium 		USA 			Canada
Zinc Ore 		Canada			Russia

Different Crops And Their Primary Producers

Crop                      Primary Producer             Secondary Producer

Barley 			Russia 			China
Cocoa 			Ghana 			Brazil
Coffee 			Brazil 			Columbia
Cotton 			Russia 			China
Flax 			Russia 			Belgium
Groundnut 		India 			China
Jute 			China 			India
Maize 			USA 			China
Manila 			Hemp 			Philippines —
Rice 			China 			India
Rubber 			Malaysia 		Indonesia
Silk 			Japan 			China
Soyabean 		USA 			China
Sugar 			Russia 			Brazil
Tea 			India 			China
Tomato 			USA 			Russia
Wheat 			Russia 			USA

Major Rivers of the World

River               Origin                                   Falls in                       Length (km.)

Nile 		Victoria lake 		Mediterranean Sea 	6,650
Amazon 		Andes (Peru) 		Atlantic Ocean 		6,428
Yangtze 	Tibetan Kiang Plateau 	China Sea 		6,300
Mississippi 	Itaska lake (USA) 	Gulf of Maxico 		6,275
Missouri 				USA
Yenisei 	Tannu-Ola Mts. 		Arctic Ocean 		5,539
Huang Ho 	Kunlun Mts. 		Gulf of Chibli 		5,464
Congo 		Lualaba & Luapula rivers Atlantic Ocean 	4,700
Amur 		North East China 	Sea of Okhotsk 		4,444
Lena 		Baikal Mountains 	Laptev Sea 		4,400
Mekong 		Tibetan Highlands 	South China Sea 	4,350
Mackenzie 	Great Slave Lake 	Beaufort Sea 		4,241
Parana 		Confluence of Paranaiba 
		& Grande rivers 	Atlantic Ocean 		3,998

Major Lakes of the World

  • Largest Lake - Caspian Sea
  • Highest lake - Lake Titicaca
  • Largest saline water lake - Caspian Sea
  • Deepest lake - Lake Baikal
  • Largest fresh water lake - Lake Superior
  • India’s largest lake  - Chilka lake

Important Lakes of the World

Lake                    Location              Area (sq. km.)

Caspian 	Russian and CIS 	371000
Superior 	Canada and USA 		82414
Victoria 	Tanzania (Africa) 	69485
Huron 		Canada and USA 		59596
Michigan 	USA 			58016
Tanganyika 	Africa 			32892
Baikal 		Russia (CIS) 		31502
Great Bear 	Canada 			31080

Oceans of the World

Names           Area (sq. km.)             Greatest Depth

Pacific 	166,240000 		Mariana Trench
Atlantic	86.560000 		Puerto Rico Trench
Indian 		73430000 		Java Trench
Arctic 		13230000 		—

Important Deserts

  • Sahara - N. Africa (Includes the Libyan and the Nubian Desert)
  • Australian -  Australia (Includes Gibson, Simpson, Victorian, Great Sandy)
  • Arabian -  Arab Countries (Includes Rub-al-Khali and An-Nafad of S. Arabia and Dast-e-Lut and Dast-e-Kavir of Iran)
  • Kalahari - Africa (mainly in Botswana)
  • Gobi - Mongolia
  • Atacama - Central Chile
  • Patagonian - Argentina
  • Takla Makan - Sinkiang, China
  • Karakum - Turkmenistan

Major Gulfs of the World

Names              Area (sq. km.)         Names             Area (sq.km.)

Gulf of Mexico 15,44,000      Gulf of St. Lawrence 2,37,000
Gulf of Hudson 12,33,000      Gulf of California   1,62,000
Arabian Gulf   2,38,000       English Channel     89,900

Major Peninsulas of the World

Peninsulas                  Area (sq. km.)         Peninsulas       Areas (sq.km.)

Arabia 			32,50,000 		Labrador 	13,00,000
Southern India 		20,72,000 		Scandinavia 	8,00,000
Alaska 			15,00,000 		Iberian 	584,000

Major Mountain Ranges of the World

Range                        Location                      Length (km)

Andes 		    South America   		7,200
Andes 		    South Central Asia 		5,000
Himalayas-Karakoram-Hindukush South Central Asia 4,800
Rockies             North America 		4,800
Great Dividing Range East Australia 		3,600
Atlas 		    North West Africa 		1,930
Western Ghats       Western India 		1,610
Caucasus            Europe 			1,200
Alaska              USA 			1,130
Alps                Europe 			1,050

Smallest and Biggest Countries

Biggest Nation            Biggest Nations             Smallest Nations         Smallest Nations
(Area-wise)               (Population-wise)                 (Area-wise)              (Population-wise)

Russia 			China 			Vatican City 			Vatican City
Canada 			India 			Monaco 				Tuvalu
China 			USA 			Nauru 				Nauru
USA 			Indonesia 		Tuvalu 				Palau
Brazil 			Brazil 			San Marino 			San Marino
Australia 		Pakistan 		Liechatenstein 			Menaco
India 			Bangladesh 		Marshall Islands 		Leichtenstein
Argentina 		Nigeria 		Sait Kitts and Nevis 		Saint Kitts and Nevis
Kazakhastan 		Russia 			Maldives 			Antigua and Barbados
Sudan 			Japan 			Malta 				Dominica

Foreign Towns Associated with Industries

Town (Country)                                  Associated Industry

Baku (Azebajjan) 			Petroleum
Bangkok (Thailand) 			Ship building
Belfast (Ireland) 			Ship building
Buenos Aires (Argentina) 		Meat
Cadiz (Portugal) 			Cork
Chicago (U.S.A.) Agricultural implements, Meat
Cologne (Germany)			 Cotton and woolen industries
Dhaka (Bangladesh) 			Jute
Detroit (U.S.A.) 			Motor cars
Dresden (Germany) 			Optical and photographic apparatus
Glasgrow (Great Britain) 		Machinery
Havana (Cuba) 				Tabacco, Cigars
Hollywood (U.S.A.) 			Film industry
Johannesburg (S. Africa) 		Gold mines
Kimberlay (S. Africa) 			Diamond mining
Leeds (England) 			Woollen goods
Lyons (France) 				Silk industries
Manchester (England) 			Cotton industry
Mauritius (Indian Ocean) 		Fishing, shipping, Sugar
Milan (Italy) 				Silk
Morocco (North Africa) 			Leather
Munich (Germany) 			Lenses
New Orleans (U.S.A.) 			Cotton industry
Osaka (Japan) 				Cotton fabrics
Pittsburg (U.S.A.)	 		Iron and Steel
Plymouth (England) 			Ship-building
Sheffield (England) 			Cutlery
Venice (Italy)				Glass manufacturing
Vienna (Austria) 			Glass manufacturing
Wellington (New Zealand) 		Dairy Product

World’s Geographical Surnames

Surname                     Name                        Surname                          Name

Bengal’s Sorrow       Damodar River       Key to the Mediterranean   Gibralter
Blue Mountains        Nilgiri Hills       Land of Cakes              Scotland
City of Sky-scrapers  New York            Land of Golden             Fleece Australia
City of Seven Hills   Rome 		  Land of Maple Leaf 	     Canada
City of Dreaming Spires Land of Morning Calm        Korea
City of Palaces 	Kolkata 	  Land of Midnight sun 	       Norway
City of Golden Gate    San Francisco      Land of the Thousand Lakes   Finland
City of Magnificent Buildings Washington D.C. Land of the Thunderbolt  Bhutan
City of Eternal 	Quito 		   Land of White 	       Thailand
Springs 	      (S. America)   	   Elephant
China’s Sorrow 		Hwang Ho    	   Land of Five Rivers 		Punjab
Cockpit of Europe 	Belgium 	   Land of Thousand Elephants 	Laos
Dark Continent 		Africa 		   Land of Rising Sun 		Japan
Emerald Isle 		Ireland 	   Loneliest Island 		Tristan De Gunha (Mid-Atlantic)
Eternal City            Rome 		   Manchester of Japan 		Osaka
Empire City 		New York 	   Pillars of Hercules 		Strait of Gibraltar
Forbidden City 		Lhasa (Tibet) 	   Pearl of the Antilles 	Cuba
Garden City 		Chicago 	   Playground of Europe 	Switzerland
Gate of Tears 		Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb Quaker City 		Philadelphia
Gateway of India 	Mumbai 		   Queen of the Adriatic 	Venice
Gift of the Nile 	Egypt 		   Roof of the World 		The Pamirs, 
			Central Asia
Granite City            Aberdeen (Scotland) Rose Pink City 		Jaipur
Hermit Kingdom  	Korea 		   Sugar bowl of the world 	Cuba
Herring Pond 		Atlantic ocean 	   Venica of the North 		Stockholm
Holy Land 		Jerusalem 	   Windy city 			Chicago
Island Continent of Africa Australia 	   Whiteran’s grave 		Guinea Coast of Africa
Island of Clvoes 	Zanzibar 	   Yellow River (China) 	Huang Ho
Isle of Pearls 		Bahrein (Persian Gulf)

Biggest, Highest, Largest, Longest in the World

Anima, Tallest 							Giraffe
Archipelago, Largest 						Indonesia
Bird, Fastest 							Swift
Bird, Largest 							Ostrich
Bird, Smallest 							Humming Bird
Bridge, Longest Railway (U.S.A.) 				Huey P. Long Bridge, Louisiana
Building, Tallest in the world 					Burj, Dubai (UAE)
Canal, Longest Irrigational 					The Kalakumsky canal
Canal, Longest 							Suez canal
Capital, Highest 						La paz (Bolvia)
City, Biggest in area 						Mount Isa (Australia)
City, Largest in population 					Tokyo
City, Costliest 						Tokyo
City, Highest 							Van Chuan (China)
Continent, Largest 						Asia
Continent, Smallest 						Australia
Country, Biggest (area) 					Russia
Country, Largest (population) 					China
Country, Largest (electorate) 					India
Creature, Largest Blue 						Whale
Delta, Largest Sunderban 					(Bangladesh & India)
Deswert, Largest (World) 					Sahara (Africa)
Desert, Largest 						(Asia) Gobi
Dam, Largest 							Grand Coulee Dam (U.S.A.)
Dam, Highest 							Hoover Dam (U.S.A.)
Diamond, Largest 						The Cullinan
Dome, Largest 							Astrodome, in Housten (U.S.A.)
Epic, Largest 							Mahabharat
Irrigation Scheme, Largest 					Lloyd Barrage, Sukkur (Pakistan)
Island, Largest 						Greenland
Sea, Largest (Artificial) 					Lake Mead (Boulder Dam)
Lake, Highest 							Titicaca (Bolivia)
Lake, Largest (Fresh water) 					Superior
Lake, Largest (Salt water) 					Caspian
Library, Largest 						United States Library of Congress, Washington D.C.
Mountain Peak, Highest 						Everest (Nepal)
Mountain Range, Longest 					Andes (S. America)

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